In ANNO1777, elections are held every month. During the first three days of each month, one can submit his candidature and make his plans for his country known to the public. On the fourth day, the people vote and decide who runs the country for the next 30 days.
Once a governor, the player gains access to a special menu in the main page (bottom) titled Congress Interface, where he can review or suggest new laws. For a law to pass, it must be voted for by at least 5 governors within 24 hours. The country's President may vote five times, whereas governors only once. However, neither the President nor any governor may vote, if they happen to be abroad.
Since no official may resign until end of his office, you must vote carefully. The ones you choose will make important decisions (bonuses, taxes, wars, alliances), through which they can make the country prosperous or ruin it. In ANNO1777, all citizens can comment on each bill before it gets voted as well as see who voted for or against the bill.